The Seeker - Various - Hardstyle Gladiators - The First Fight (CD)
KuFlGr , on the North Sea. Lt Cdr J. Cockburn was credited with one destroyed and Blue Section with a "damaged". Later British Gladiators fought to provide fighter cover for the allied reinforcements sent to the assistance of the Norwegian government. One Gladiator was shot down during the air battle by the future experte Helmut Lent , while two were strafed and destroyed while refuelling and rearming at Fornebu airport. The remaining four operational fighters were ordered to land wherever they could away from the base.
The Gladiators landed on frozen lakes around Oslo and were abandoned by their pilots, then wrecked by souvenir -hunting civilians. No Norwegian Army Air Service aircraft were able to evacuate westwards before the 10 June surrender of the mainland Norwegian forces. Ds and one Tiger Moth also managed to escape eastwards to Finland before the surrender. Further three naval M. Gladiators were used also by Squadron during the remaining two months of the Norwegian Campaign. Prior to the German invasion of Norway, Britain had prepared this squadron for the conflict via low temperature environmental training.
On 25 April, a pair of Gladiators destroyed a Heinkel He aircraft; Luftwaffe bombers carried out numerous retaliatory attacks upon the runway that day, wounding several pilots on the ground.
Having re-equipped in Britain, Squadron resumed its Gladiator operations in Norway when it returned to the north of Norway on 21 May, flying from Bardufoss airfield near Narvik.
In addition to air defence duties, in the last days of May ground attack missions were also flown by the Gladiators, targeting railway stations, enemy vehicles, and coastal vessels. On 2 June, one Gladiator pilot, Louis Jacobsen, was credited with the destruction of three Heinkel He s, along with the probable destruction of a Junkers Ju 88 and an addition He aircraft, during a single sortie. By then, Squadron had flown sorties and claimed 26 enemy aircraft destroyed.
Despite the valiant defence put up by her two escorting destroyers, HMS Acasta and HMS Ardent , she was sunk along with the aircraft from four squadrons. Williams along with eight other pilots. Belgian Gladiators suffered heavy losses to the Germans in , with all 15 operational aircraft lost,   while only managing to damage two German aircraft.
Although no combat sorties took place at the height of the aerial battles, Squadron Gladiators intercepted a Heinkel He in late October , without result. Three were later shipped out to take part in the Norwegian Campaign and another three were sent to Egypt. Several Sea Gladiators were assembled and test-flown. The aircraft names came into use after the battle. The Italian air force units deployed against Malta should have easily defeated the Gladiators but its manoeuvrability and good tactics won several engagements, often starting with a dive on Savoia-Marchetti SM.
Although the Regia Aeronautica had started with a numerical advantage and air superiority, during the summer of the situation was reversed, with Hurricanes being delivered as fast as possible and gradually taking over the island's air defence. By June, two of the Gladiators had crashed and two more were assembled. During a dogfight a CR. Manlio Tarantino shot down Hartley's Gladiator N , badly burning him. The fate of at least five more Gladiators that saw action over Malta is not as well documented.
The first aerial combat between the biplanes took place on 14 June over Amseat. A formation of 11 CR. The five Gladiators of 33 Squadron claimed four CR. On 4 August , Fiat biplanes from a Squadriglia of Capitano Duilio Fanali intercepted four Gladiators commanded by Marmaduke "Pat" Pattle eventually to become one of the top-scoring Allied aces with approximately 50 claims that were attacking Breda Ba.
The battle became confused. Initially it was thought that only the old CR. On this occasion, the Fiats managed to surprise the Gladiators, shooting down three of them. British pilots claimed 13 to 16 confirmed victories and one to seven probables, while losing two Gladiators. Overall, the few Gladiators and CR. In Eastern Africa, it was determined that Italian forces based on Ethiopia posed a threat to the British Aden Protectorate , thus it was decided that an offensive would be necessary, in which the Gladiator would face off against the Italian biplane fighters: Fiat CR.
Early on in the offensive, Gladiators of No. They were also assigned the mission of defending Aden airspace at day and night, and to protect Allied shipping operating in the vicinity. Diving on it, he opened fire at yards. Although the CR. There was a brief flicker of flame and the last Italian aircraft to be shot down over East Africa spun into the ground and burst into flames near Ambazzo.
The next day the wreckage was found, the dead pilot still in the cockpit. Hope dropped a message on Italian positions at Ambazzo: "Tribute to the pilot of the Fiat. He was a brave man. South African Air Force. Tension had been building between Greece and Italy since 7 April , when Italian troops occupied Albania.
On 28 October , Italy issued an ultimatum to Greece, which was promptly rejected; a few hours later, Italian troops launched an invasion of Greece, initiating the Greco-Italian War. Britain dispatched help to the embattled Greeks in the form of 80 Squadron , elements of which arrived at Trikkala by 19 November.
That same day, the Gladiator debut came in the form of a surprise, intercepting a section of five Italian CR. On 27 November, seven Gladiators attacked three Falcos, shooting down the lead aircraft, piloted by Com. Masfaldi, commanding the a Squadriglia. On 28 November, the commander of a Squadriglia , Com. Graffer, was shot down during a combat where seven aircraft were downed, four of them British.
The following day, a clash between 20 Gladiators and ten CR. On 21 December, 20 Gladiators intercepted a force of 15 CR. One of the more notable Gladiator engagements of the whole war occurred on the Albanian border with Greece on 28 February A mixed force of 28 Gladiators and Hurricanes encountered roughly 50 Italian aircraft, and claimed to have shot down or severely damaged at least 27 of them.
The complete Squadron moved to Eleusis by the end of January , and by the end of the following month, had received 80 Sqn's Gladiators, after the latter unit had converted to Hawker Hurricanes. On 5 April, German forces invaded Greece and quickly established air superiority.
As the Allied troops retreated, Gladiators covered them, before flying to Crete during the last week of April. There No Sqn recorded a few claims over twin-engined aircraft before being evacuated to Egypt during the Battle of Crete. On 2 May , in response to a blockade established by increasing numbers of Iraqi forces on RAF Habbaniya and demands from the revolutionary Iraqi government, a preemptive RAF attack was launched to break the encirclement. During this action, Iraqi Gladiators took part in attacks on the British air base, repeatedly strafing it ineffectively.
With the increased tension, the base was reinforced with another six Gladiators on 19 April, flying in from Egypt. During the fighting, the sole Gladiator-on-Gladiator kill occurred on 5 May, when Plt. Watson of the fighter flight shot down an Iraqi Gladiator over Baqubah during a bomber escort mission. The Iraqi Gladiators' only claim during the war was a Vickers Wellington bomber shared with ground fire on 4 May. Other groups and tribes would join the cast list as Roman territories expanded.
Most gladiators were armed and armoured in the manner of the enemies of Rome. In BC, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus , late consul and augur , was honoured by his sons with three days of gladiatora munera in the Forum Romanum , using twenty-two pairs of gladiators.
High status non-Romans, and possibly Romans too, volunteered as his gladiators. The enthusiastic adoption of gladiatoria munera by Rome's Iberian allies shows how easily, and how early, the culture of the gladiator munus permeated places far from Rome itself.
By BC, "small" Roman munera private or public , provided by an editor of relatively low importance, may have been so commonplace and unremarkable they were not considered worth recording: . The climax of the show which was big for the time was that in three days seventy four gladiators fought. In BC, the ruling consuls offered Rome its first taste of state-sponsored " barbarian combat" demonstrated by gladiators from Capua, as part of a training program for the military. It proved immensely popular.
Where traditional ludi had been dedicated to a deity, such as Jupiter , the munera could be dedicated to an aristocratic sponsor's divine or heroic ancestor. Gladiator games offered their sponsors extravagantly expensive but effective opportunities for self-promotion, and gave their clients and potential voters exciting entertainment at little or no cost to themselves. A politically ambitious privatus private citizen might postpone his deceased father's munus to the election season, when a generous show might drum up votes; those in power and those seeking it needed the support of the plebeians and their tribunes , whose votes might be won with the mere promise of an exceptionally good show.
In the closing years of the politically and socially unstable Late Republic, any aristocratic owner of gladiators had political muscle at his disposal.
Despite an already enormous personal debt, he used gladiator pairs in silvered armour. Gladiatorial games, usually linked with beast shows, spread throughout the Republic and beyond. Legislation of AD by Marcus Aurelius did little to stop it, and was completely ignored by his son, Commodus. The decline of the munus was a far from straightforward process. Still, emperors continued to subsidize the games as a matter of undiminished public interest. Ten years later, he forbade criminals being forced to fight to the death as gladiators:.
Bloody spectacles do not please us in civil ease and domestic quiet. For that reason we forbid those people to be gladiators who by reason of some criminal act were accustomed to deserve this condition and sentence.
You shall rather sentence them to serve in the mines so that they may acknowledge the penalties of their crimes with blood . This has been interpreted as a ban on gladiatorial combat. Yet, in the last year of his life, Constantine wrote a letter to the citizens of Hispellum, granting its people the right to celebrate his rule with gladiatorial games. In , Valentinian I r. In , Theodosius I r. Honorius r. According to Theodoret , the ban was in consequence of Saint Telemachus ' martyrdom by spectators at a munus.
In the Byzantine Empire, theatrical shows and chariot races continued to attract the crowds, and drew a generous Imperial subsidy. It is not known how many gladiatoria munera were given throughout the Roman period. Many, if not most, involved venationes , and in the later Empire some may have been only that.
In BC, at least one munus was held during April's Megalesia. In the early Imperial era, munera in Pompeii and neighbouring towns were dispersed from March through November. They included a provincial magnate's five-day munus of thirty pairs, plus beast-hunts. Of days reserved for spectacles of various kinds, were for theatrical shows, 64 for chariot races and just 10 in December for gladiator games and venationes.
A century before this, the emperor Alexander Severus r. As Wiedemann points out, December was also the month for the Saturnalia , Saturn's festival, in which death was linked to renewal, and the lowest were honoured as the highest. The earliest munera took place at or near the tomb of the deceased and these were organised by their munerator who made the offering.
Later games were held by an editor , either identical with the munerator or an official employed by him. As time passed, these titles and meanings may have merged. From the Principate onwards, private citizens could hold munera and own gladiators only under Imperial permission, and the role of editor was increasingly tied to state officialdom.
Bigger games were put on by senior magistrates, who could better afford them. The largest and most lavish of all were paid for by the emperor himself. The earliest types of gladiator were named after Rome's enemies of that time: the Samnite , Thracian and Gaul. The Samnite, heavily armed, elegantly helmed and probably the most popular type, [ citation needed ] was renamed secutor and the Gaul renamed murmillo , once these former enemies had been conquered then absorbed into Rome's Empire.
In the mid-republican munus , each type seems to have fought against a similar or identical type. In the later Republic and early Empire, various "fantasy" types were introduced, and were set against dissimilar but complementary types. For example, the bareheaded, nimble retiarius "net-man" , armoured only at the left arm and shoulder, pitted his net, trident and dagger against the more heavily armoured, helmeted Secutor. Passing literary references to others has allowed their tentative reconstruction.
Other novelties introduced around this time included gladiators who fought from chariots or carts , or from horseback. The trade in gladiators was empire-wide, and subjected to official supervision. Rome's military success produced a supply of soldier-prisoners who were redistributed for use in State mines or amphitheatres and for sale on the open market. In Rome's military ethos, enemy soldiers who had surrendered or allowed their own capture and enslavement had been granted an unmerited gift of life.
Their training as gladiators would give them opportunity to redeem their honour in the munus. For the poor, and for non-citizens, enrollment in a gladiator school offered a trade, regular food, housing of sorts and a fighting chance of fame and fortune. Mark Antony chose a troupe of gladiators to be his personal bodyguard.
Tiberius offered several retired gladiators , sesterces each to return to the arena. From the 60s AD female gladiators appear as rare and "exotic markers of exceptionally lavish spectacle". Cassius Dio takes pains to point out that when the much admired emperor Titus used female gladiators, they were of acceptably low class. Some regarded female gladiators of any type or class as a symptom of corrupted Roman appetites, morals and womanhood. Before he became emperor, Septimius Severus may have attended the Antiochene Olympic Games, which had been revived by the emperor Commodus and included traditional Greek female athletics.
His attempt to give Rome a similarly dignified display of female athletics was met by the crowd with ribald chants and cat-calls. Caligula , Titus , Hadrian , Lucius Verus , Caracalla , Geta and Didius Julianus were all said to have performed in the arena, either in public or private, but risks to themselves were minimal.
Commodus was a fanatical participant at the ludi , and compelled Rome's elite to attend his performances as gladiator, bestiarius or venator. Most of his performances as a gladiator were bloodless affairs, fought with wooden swords; he invariably won. He was said to have restyled Nero's colossal statue in his own image as " Hercules Reborn", dedicated to himself as "Champion of secutores ; only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times one thousand men.
On another occasion, he decapitated a running ostrich with a specially designed dart, carried the bloodied head and his sword over to the Senatorial seats and gesticulated as though they were next. Gladiator games were advertised well beforehand, on billboards that gave the reason for the game, its editor, venue, date and the number of paired gladiators ordinarii to be used. Other highlighted features could include details of venationes , executions, music and any luxuries to be provided for the spectators, such as an awning against the sun, water sprinklers, food, drink, sweets and occasionally "door prizes".
For enthusiasts and gamblers, a more detailed program libellus was distributed on the day of the munus , showing the names, types and match records of gladiator pairs, and their order of appearance. The night before the munus , the gladiators were given a banquet and opportunity to order their personal and private affairs; Futrell notes its similarity to a ritualistic or sacramental "last meal".
The event may also have been used to drum up more publicity for the imminent game. Official munera of the early Imperial era seem to have followed a standard form munus legitimum. They were followed by a small band of trumpeters tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to "witness" the proceedings, followed by a scribe to record the outcome, and a man carrying the palm branch used to honour victors. The magistrate editor entered among a retinue who carried the arms and armour to be used; the gladiators presumably came in last.
The entertainments often began with venationes beast hunts and bestiarii beast fighters. A crude Pompeian graffito suggests a burlesque of musicians, dressed as animals named Ursus tibicen flute-playing bear and Pullus cornicen horn-blowing chicken , perhaps as accompaniment to clowning by paegniarii during a "mock" contest of the ludi meridiani. Increasingly the munus was the editor' s gift to spectators who had come to expect the best as their due.
Lightly armed and armoured fighters, such as the retiarius , would tire less rapidly than their heavily armed opponents; most bouts would have lasted 10 to 15 minutes, or 20 minutes at most. Spectators preferred to watch highly skilled, well matched ordinarii with complementary fighting styles; these were the most costly to train and to hire. A general melee of several, lower-skilled gladiators was far less costly, but also less popular.
Even among the ordinarii , match winners might have to fight a new, well-rested opponent, either a tertiarius "third choice gladiator" by prearrangement; or a "substitute" gladiator suppositicius who fought at the whim of the editor as an unadvertised, unexpected "extra". Most were probably of poor quality,  but the emperor Caracalla chose to test a notably skilled and successful fighter named Bato against first one supposicitius , whom he beat, and then another, who killed him.
Combats between experienced, well trained gladiators demonstrated a considerable degree of stagecraft. Among the cognoscenti, bravado and skill in combat were esteemed over mere hacking and bloodshed; some gladiators made their careers and reputation from bloodless victories. Suetonius describes an exceptional munus by Nero, in which no-one was killed, "not even noxii enemies of the state. Trained gladiators were expected to observe professional rules of combat.
Most matches employed a senior referee summa rudis and an assistant, shown in mosaics with long staffs rudes to caution or separate opponents at some crucial point in the match. Referees were usually retired gladiators whose decisions, judgement and discretion were, for the most part, respected;  they could stop bouts entirely, or pause them to allow the combatants rest, refreshment and a rub-down.
Ludi and munera were accompanied by music, played as interludes, or building to a "frenzied crescendo" during combats, perhaps to heighten the suspense during a gladiator's appeal; blows may have been accompanied by trumpet-blasts. Their instruments are a long straight trumpet tubicen , a large curved horn Cornu and a water organ hydraulis. A match was won by the gladiator who overcame his opponent, or killed him outright. Victors received the palm branch and an award from the editor.
An outstanding fighter might receive a laurel crown and money from an appreciative crowd but for anyone originally condemned ad ludum the greatest reward was manumission emancipation , symbolised by the gift of a wooden training sword or staff rudis from the editor. Martial describes a match between Priscus and Verus , who fought so evenly and bravely for so long that when both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, Titus awarded victory and a rudis to each.
His gravestone in Sicily includes his record: "Flamma, secutor , lived 30 years, fought 34 times, won 21 times, fought to a draw 9 times, defeated 4 times, a Syrian by nationality. Delicatus made this for his deserving comrade-in-arms. A gladiator could acknowledge defeat by raising a finger ad digitum , in appeal to the referee to stop the combat and refer to the editor , whose decision would usually rest on the crowd's response.
During the Imperial era, matches advertised as sine missione without remission from the sentence of death suggest that missio the sparing of a defeated gladiator's life had become common practice. The contract between editor and his lanista could include compensation for unexpected deaths;  this could be "some fifty times higher than the lease price" of the gladiator.
Under Augustus' rule, the demand for gladiators began to exceed supply, and matches sine missione were officially banned; an economical, pragmatic development that happened to match popular notions of "natural justice". When Caligula and Claudius refused to spare defeated but popular fighters, their own popularity suffered. In general, gladiators who fought well were likely to survive. Whether victorious or defeated, a gladiator was bound by oath to accept or implement his editor's decision, "the victor being nothing but the instrument of his [editor's] will.
Once a band of five retiarii in tunics, matched against the same number of secutores , yielded without a struggle; but when their death was ordered, one of them caught up his trident and slew all the victors.
Caligula bewailed this in a public proclamation as a most cruel murder. A gladiator who was refused missio was despatched by his opponent. To die well, a gladiator should never ask for mercy, nor cry out. For death, when it stands near us, gives even to inexperienced men the courage not to seek to avoid the inevitable. So the gladiator, no matter how faint-hearted he has been throughout the fight, offers his throat to his opponent and directs the wavering blade to the vital spot.
Epistles , Some mosaics show defeated gladiators kneeling in preparation for the moment of death. Seneca's "vital spot" seems to have meant the neck. The body of a gladiator who had died well was placed on a couch of Libitina and removed with dignity to the arena morgue, where the corpse was stripped of armour, and probably had its throat cut to prove that dead was dead.
The Christian author Tertullian , commenting on ludi meridiani in Roman Carthage during the peak era of the games, describes a more humiliating method of removal.
One arena official, dressed as the "brother of Jove", Dis Pater god of the underworld strikes the corpse with a mallet. Another, dressed as Mercury , tests for life-signs with a heated "wand"; once confirmed as dead, the body is dragged from the arena. Whether these victims were gladiators or noxii is unknown. Modern pathological examination confirms the probably fatal use of a mallet on some, but not all the gladiator skulls found in a gladiators' cemetery. Whether the corpse of such a gladiator could be redeemed from further ignominy by friends or familia is not known.
The bodies of noxii , and possibly some damnati , were thrown into rivers or dumped unburied;  Denial of funeral rites and memorial condemned the shade manes of the deceased to restless wandering upon the earth as a dreadful larva or lemur.
The taint of infamia was perpetual. Gladiators could subscribe to a union collegia , which ensured their proper burial, and sometimes a pension or compensation for wives and children. Otherwise, the gladiator's familia , which included his lanista , comrades and blood-kin, might fund his funeral and memorial costs, and use the memorial to assert their moral reputation as responsible, respectful colleagues or family members. Some include the gladiator's type, in words or direct representation: for example, the memorial of a retiarius at Verona included an engraved trident and sword.
According to Cassius Dio, the emperor Caracalla gave the gladiator Bato a magnificent memorial and State funeral;  more typical are the simple gladiator tombs of the Eastern Roman Empire, whose brief inscriptions include the following:.
Titus Flavius Satyrus set up this monument in his memory from his own money. Paitraeites with his cell-mates set this up in memory".
Very little evidence survives of the religious beliefs of gladiators as a class, or their expectations of an afterlife. Modern scholarship offers little support for the once-prevalent notion that gladiators, venatores and bestiarii were personally or professionally dedicated to the cult of the Graeco-Roman goddess Nemesis. Commonly fights the retiarius. Thraex — Wore a helmet with basic arm and leg protection, a small shield, and a curved sword called a sica. The thraex commonly fought the murmillo or hoplomachus.
The arenas of ancient Rome, more specifically the Coliseum, were specially designed to allow fights of all kinds: from the standard gladiator match to fights with animals and even large scale naval battles.
The marvel of engineering that is the Coliseum is only overshadowed by its bloody and brutal history. Museum Replicas is the registered trademark and copyright of Museum Replicas Limited. Caps and Hats Clothing Swords and Weapons.
Customer service. The Magi of " Oracle Think Tank " have foretold an ominous disaster, "the disappearance of Blaster Blade , the swordsman of light". It is also foretold that "Two Hopes" are required to prevent this disaster. To seek the unknown existence and confront the fate, the search party "Seeker" is formed, with " Blaster Blade " as its leader.
Their journey was the past that has become a legend, and it happened before the rebellion of Shadow Paladins. They have met Sage of Guidance, Zenon , who revealed to them fragments of the future.
They saw people who worked their best to live such as Brawlers and Metalborgs. The Seekers vowed to seek the hope in order to protect the world and the future. Moved by their solidarity, Zenon made attempts to summon someone , even at the cost of violating the taboo of intervening the past. In order to investigate the aberrant condition "Interdimensional Crosstalk", "Royal Paladin" dispatched messengers to garrison troops all over the Sanctuary, and established several search parties.
The search party "Seekers" is one of them. It is named after the troop lead by a great knight , who stood against the fate of his own disappearance and returned successfully after a long journey. The phenomenon known as " Stride ", and the mysterious party whose members use "Stride" intentionally Sign In Don't have an account?The Gladiators are a fictional New York City gang in Contents[show] Description Their territory is Canarsie, Brooklyn, and they could be identified by the black or navy vests that they wore. They were on the Gramercy Riffs' network. History Formation Little is known about the Gladiators' formation, except that they were founded sometime before the meeting on July 12, The Meeting.